- ABRAHAM BEN AZRIEL
- ABRAHAM BEN AZRIEL (13th century), liturgical commentator, one of the "Elders of Bohemia." Abraham was a disciple of the great German pietists, judah b. samuel he-Ḥasid and eleazar b. judah of Worms (Rokeah) as well as of baruch b. isaac of Regensburg, the latter two being his chief teachers. isaac b. moses Or Zaru'a was his disciple. About 1234 he wrote Arugat ha-Bosem ("Spice Garden"), a commentary on liturgical poems (edited by E.E. Urbach with commentary, 1939). The work reveals a comprehensive knowledge of every branch of Jewish learning: masoretic text and vocalization, exegesis and grammar, the halakhic and aggadic Midrashim, the two Talmuds and their early expositors, and philosophical and kabbalistic literature. All obscure references in the piyyutim are explained in great detail. As a result of its prolixity, the book did not have a wide circulation and is only rarely quoted in later literature. However, after abraham berliner discovered the manuscript in the Vatican library, scholars realized its importance. Abraham's main sources are: Abraham Ibn Ezra, Eleazar Rokeaḥ, Judah Ḥayyuj, Judah b. Samuel he-Ḥasid, Joseph Kara, Jacob Tam, Moses of Taku, Rashi, Solomon Parḥon, Samuel b. Meir, Nathan b. Jehiel of Rome, and Maimonides. He was the first of the French and German scholars to make full use of the whole of Maimonides' work. The quotations in the book give an insight into the nature and character of many books no longer extant, by authorities such as Samuel b. Meir and Eleazar Rokeaḥ (who is mentioned by name more than 170 times) and by scholars whose names were previously unknown. Abraham was known for his critical insight and independence and did not hesitate to contradict his teacher, Eleazar Rokeaḥ. His quotations from the halakhic and aggadic literature, the Tosefta, and the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds are valuable, for there are many differences between his texts and those appearing in the printed editions. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Steinschneider, in: HB, 9 (1869), 174; MWJ, 1 (1874), 2–3, 5; Perles, in: MGWJ, 26 (1877), 360–73; Kaufmann, ibid., 31 (1882), 316–24, 360–70, 410–22; E.E. Urbach (ed.), Arugat ha-Bosem (1967), introduction.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
Look at other dictionaries:
ABRAHAM BEN N… HA-BAGHDADI — (10th century), communal leader in Babylonia. Information on Abraham is to be found in the poems of praise dedicated to him by one Abraham ha Kohen, who seems to have been his secretary. He held a military command under the caliph and was a… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ABRAHAM BEN ALEXANDER (Axelrad) OF COLOGNE — (13th century), kabbalist. A disciple of R. Eleazar b. Judah of Worms, he immigrated to Spain where he probably studied with the kabbalist R. Ezra. Solomon b. Abraham adret knew him personally in his youth, and tells of his extraordinary… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
BENJAMIN BEN AZRIEL — (11th century), liturgical poet, who apparently lived in France. His name and his father s are known only from his piyyutim, which are written in the spirit of the earlier paytanim. While the influence of joseph bonfils and moses b. kalonymus is… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ASHKENAZI, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB — (1811–1880), Sephardi chief rabbi of Ereẓ Israel. Ashkenazi was born in Larissa, in Greece, but c. 1820 his family settled in Jerusalem where he studied under Samuel Arvaẓ, and was successively appointed a dayyan in the bet din of Benjamin… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
IBN ARDUT, ḤAYYIM JOSEPH BEN AZRIEL HA-KOHEN — (before 1750–1827), scholar of Salonika. Ibn Ardut was appointed rabbi of Salonika after the death of Raphael Ḥayyim Abraham covo in 1792. He was responsible for the printing of a large number of books, among them the Yekara de Shakhvei (Salonika … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ABRAHAM ḤAYYIM BEN GEDALIAH — (1750–1816), Galician rabbi. Abraham studied under his father Gedaliah b. Benjamin Wolf, who was av bet din in Zloczow. He was a disciple of dov baer the Maggid of Mezhirech, jacob joseph of Polonnoye, and jehiel michel of zloczow . He was also a … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Azriel Carlebach — Ezriel Carlebach, 1942 Ezriel Carlebach (auch Azriel, eigentlich Esriel Gotthelf Carlebach, hebr.: עזריאל קרליבך, jidd.: עזריאל קארלעבאך. Leipzig * 7. November 1909; † 12. Februar 1956 in Tel Aviv, Israel) war ein israelischer Journalist… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Azriel Hildesheimer — Israel Azriel Hildesheimer (May 20, 1820 ndash; July 12, 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism. He is regarded as a pioneering modernizer of Orthodox Judaism in Germany and as a founder of Modern Orthodox… … Wikipedia
Juda ben Eli — (ou Ali) est un Sage karaïte (mouvement juif scripturaliste, adversaire du judaïsme rabbinique traditionnel) des IXe et Xe siècles (décédé à Jérusalem en 932) Grammairien et poète liturgique, il a dirigé le centre d études karaïte de… … Wikipédia en Français
BEKHOR SHOR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC — (12th century), northern French exegete, tosafist, and poet. Referred to as Joseph Bekhor Shor, he has been identified with Joseph b. Isaac of Orleans, an identification which has been proved despite the doubts of various scholars. The… … Encyclopedia of Judaism